Skip to Content

Subject, Object, Improv: John Cage, Pauline Oliveros, and Eastern (Western) Philosophy in Music

Tracy McMullen

Published: 2010-12-06

This essay investigates composers Pauline Oliveros and John Cage, their use and abuse of Buddhist philosophy, and how these (mis)understandings influenced and were reflected in their attitudes toward improvisation. While John Cage famously claimed to remove his "self" from his work, McMullen argues that his practices (informed by a mis-reading of Zen through a Protestant ideology) served to further instantiate a self that mastered the body. Oliveros's interest in meditation, improvisation, and corporeal practices demonstrates an understanding of the "self" as intersubjective and de-centralized. McMullen argues that the ideology of the subject/object, self/other split within the Western intellectual tradition has functioned to attenuate the radical elements within these artists' work, influencing Cage's own philosophical understanding, and marginalizing the improvisatory and corporeal practices of Oliveros.

Available Files

  • John_Cage_Pauline_Oliveros_and_Eastern_Western_Philosophy_in_Music.pdf

    233 KB | application/pdf


Listening itself, an improvisative act engaged in by everyone, announces a practice of active engagement with the world, where we sift, interpret, store and forget, in parallel with action and fundamentally articulated with it ("Mobilitas Animi" 113).

– George E. Lewis